A glass of warm milk helps to sleep, and a bacon sandwich equal or more

Image result for sleepFew nutritional myths have far surpassed the inexorable proof of having contrasted it with one’s own experience, such as that a glass of warm milk helps to get to sleep. It is true, and it also helps to receive a kiss on the forehead (to be able to be the mother of each one) or feel a warm hand holding your own or, simply, that hand lies on one arm or caress the aforementioned front. Those things, help to sleep . But it is not necessary to look for the cat three feet.

What is inexplicable in knowing that making a conscious call to reflect on our particular waking state can serve as a first step to adopt a behavior that favors the reconciliation of sleep? And if they help us with that kiss or that better caress.

But no, apparently you have to look for a “scientific explanation”, I mean the milk of the cup of the ditto. And they have “found” it, of course. Says so:

Do not tell me it’s not cool and super-neuro-scientific . However, this response is far from being serious or contrasted and, in the opposite direction, has much scientist and gimmick . It is not the same.

The explanation you just read is part of a recent press release from the National Federation of Dairy Industries (FeNIL) and it is common to hear it repeated in the mouths of many people including not a few health professionals . So … you ask yourself, are you implying that this explanation is not true?

It’s not that I imply it, it’s more false than a 23-euro bill … no matter how good it sounds, no matter how much tryptophan the milk has (which, in fact, it is not) and how much precursor this amino acid is essential of serotonin, melatonin and other blablablás.

Milk girl

Why does the milk glass work for sleep?

Possibly due to the effect of two non-exclusive processes:

On the one hand, the aforementioned “interventionism” consisting in making a conscious separation between the before (of sleeping) and the beginning of a series of relaxing rituals conducive to the desired effect , in this case, to sleep. A practice that could have a little relationship with the highly studied and practical in certain situations ” placebo effect “. The intention with which someone provides or can get that glass of warm milk to someone else, the “good night” with which it is accompanied … and let’s not say the kiss on the forehead, and …

On the other hand, the contrasted somnolence that causes to some extent any digestive process (feeling with a full stomach). Especially and, in this case, also facilitated by the warmth of a soft and silky product .

Why tryptophan, serotonin and melatonin is a gimmicky fallacy

In this case based on three arguments:

The first , because even assuming that in the synthesis of serotonin and melatonin prominently intervenes the amino acid tryptophan as a precursor element, it is necessary to realize that the process that must follow that tryptophan to be used in the synthesis of serotonin or Melatonin is not exactly immediate : It is ingested with milk; digests this; its nutrients are absorbed (including the famous tryptophan); it is incorporated into the blood circulation; arrives at the neurons of the central nervous system (something that has enough crumb and in which other dietary factors influence); they incorporate it into their cytoplasm (cellular interior) by means of a specific transmembrane transporter; there it is used for the synthesis of serotonin; this substance must in turn be introduced into the neuronal vesicles for their subsequent release in the terminals that are a considerable distance away from their place of synthesis … So, this process that is not especially immediate facilitates, it is true, that a Starting from tryptophan, serotonin and melatonin are synthesized and with them the sleep is conciliated. It’s true … but the day after having taken that glass of warm milk … which is not part of the explanation ( drink milk to have serotonin and melatonin enough to be sleepy … the next day )

The process described is especially verifiable in the case of serotonin. In the case of melatonin, things get a little more complicated when their release is also especially mediated by the incidence of light . Rather because of its absence, regardless of the milk that one drinks.

The second , because the action of serotonin and melatonin is going to be interfered with by many other neurotransmitters and hormones that can have a synergistic effect with these (favoring sleep) or, on the contrary, antagonist, making it difficult . So, to say that to get to sleep is desirable to incorporate dietary sources of tryptophan is as simplistic as to say that to beat the world record of the 100 meters is necessary to have good athletic shoes (and say nothing more).

And the third argument … the most devastating and simple to understand . Even ignoring the two previous arguments, and stating the truth that is the tryptophan which immediately promotes the synthesis and release of serotonin and melatonin, it is necessary to take into account that if the tryptophan is treated there are many foods with as much or much more of this amino acid than milk .

Using standard quantities of consumption, it is necessary to know that a 200 ml glass of milk contains about 92 mg of tryptophan … is this a lot or a little? you will be asking.

Image result for bacon sandwichWell, to give you an idea a sandwich of bacon (60g of bread = 46.8mg of tryptophan and 50g of bacon = 48.5mg of tryptophan), add 95.3mg of tryptophan , almost equal and above the well-known milk … but fame is her. You see In addition, if you want to put tryptophan in plan a sac , because you believe this nonsense related to ” nutritionism “, you can try better than with milk with:

  • A fried egg (55g) provides 98 mg of tryptophan
  • 40 grams of gouda cheese: 141 mg
  • 40 grams of parmesan: 224 mg
  • 125 grams of grilled pork loin: 483 mg
  • 125 grams of grilled chicken breast: 496 mg
  • 125 grams of grilled sirloin steak: 498 mg
  • 150 grams of salted cod: 1,096 mg
  • Etc

And now, let’s go with the tip … the few studies that have highlighted the possibility that tryptophan has a more or less immediate effect when inducing sleep , they have done with higher (never lower) to 1 gram of tryptophan and up to about 15 grams. Figures that are very, very far from those contained in a glass of milk. Here you have a review on the subject: Effects of L-tryptophan on sleepiness and on sleep .

And then if you drink milk to sleep that has a lot of tryptophan … and then serotonin up and melatonin down … what if the sleep hormone and if you blah, blah, blah.

Of course, a glass of warm milk can help you fall asleep , but it is not because of the gimmicky explanation that they usually offer … those who get carried away by the rumor mill or, what is worse, those who have more interest in selling milk “at any price” that intention to exercise its responsibility with rigor . And I do not look at anyone.

The salary of the poor in the United States

The salary of the poor in the United States

“While Gail and I were wrapping silverware in napkins (the only task during which we were allowed to sit down), she confessed that she was thinking of running away from her shared apartment and moving to the Days Inn hotel. Do not think about paying between 40 and 60 dollars a day? “Gail left the cutlery in the bar, rolled her eyes and said surprised:” And, where do you want me to take out a month’s rent and another one of bail to live on my own? ‘In poverty, the way you start is everything.’

This is a paragraph adapted from the book Nickel and Dimed , by the American journalist Bárbara Ehrenreich. The author wants to discover how the people who earn the minimum wage in her country survive, and she decides to experience it herself: she temporarily renounces her well-to-do life and dedicates herself to working in low- paid and low-paid positions, unskilled, low-wage jobs . In the first one he meets Gail, a middle-aged woman who serves tables and refills Dijon mustard containers under the scrutiny of her supervisor and spends half of her income renting a room she shares with someone she would not have chosen as a friend

With some variations, Gail’s is the situation of millions of employees in the United States : despite working throughout their lives full-time living in precariousness because they receive the minimum wage stipulated, $ 7.25 per hour, that the often leaves below the poverty line (estimated at $ 11,170 per person and $ 23,050 for a family of four). Often they can not save, acquire basic medical insurance or access housing in conditions. Sometimes they end up spending almost all their salary on temporary accommodation, such as hotels, because they can not accumulate two months of rent to enter a flat. Some live in houses on wheels ( mobile homes ) or in caravans, and when the money no longer reaches them, they begin their journey through family homes and shelters. Others sleep in their car or on the street, and wash in the toilets of the public library or one of the ubiquitous Starbucks. They suffer obesity, diabetes or other diseases related to a diet in which chicken nuggets are repeated a lot, because fruit and vegetables are for those who earn more. It is very difficult for them and the following generations to get out of that circle and improve, because the combination of economic scarcity and strenuous work numbs the senses. It is not the working class. It’s the poor working class. It should be an oxymoron, but in the world we live in it is not.

The minimum wage in the United States

Image result for minimum wage in america jobs

In this country the federal minimum wage was established in 1938 ($ 0.25 per hour). “A fair payment for a fair day,” proclaimed President Roosevelt when he presented his bill before Congress. But since then it has not always risen in relation to the cost of living and inflation. At present, according to poverty indicators, it seems evident that you can not live with dignity if you only have a salary of 7.25 dollars per hour, one of the lowest among rich countries.

The current government has proposed to increase to $ 9 : “Nobody who works full time should live in poverty,” proclaimed President Obama in his speech on the state of the nation in February this year. This increase would not be a big change, of course. There will still be working people who are in great need, who ask for credit cards at a 25% interest rate to cover essential expenses, or who have to choose between going to the doctor or paying the electric bill. As one of Barbara Ehrenheich’s coworkers in Maine: when she dislocated her ankle she kept scrubbing tables and sweeping floors without mentioning anything. But that increase would set a level somewhat closer to the price of life and bring the minimum wage closer to an amount that can be lived. A working wage would also be a living wage .

A recent survey published by the Pew Research Center shows the response of the population to the initiative of the Obama Administration: about a third are reluctant to change that, for three main reasons: the first, because it could lead to destruction of employment, the automation of services and the increase in the cost of products. For example, an investigation by the University of California-Irvine highlights the correlation between wage increases and the loss of low-skilled jobs. The second, because only 3% of workers in the country receive a basic income, and half of these are young people between the ages of 16 and 24. In addition, many receive government aid, such as food stamps, and tax reductions for work income. Finally, in some countries with a strong economy and low unemployment there is no minimum wage, as is the case in Germany, Finland, Norway or Sweden. And in others, like Spain, it has been proposed to eliminate it.

However, other research suggests that the salary increase would improve the national economy as it would, among other things, reduce government aid, encourage rent and purchase of better housing and avoid diseases related to such a stressful life. The destruction of employment and rising prices, if any, would be insignificant in relation to the benefit that would represent increasing the purchasing power of the several million workers living in misery. More than those officially known. Because the percentage, if analyzed well, is well above the 3% collected by the Census Bureau: this figure does not include tipped staff , nor certain employees such as newspaper delivery workers or babysitters, nor students, since employers are exempt from paying the minimum wage to all these groups, which together total two million people. Nor does it include those who have a fixed remuneration, not hours. Not even undocumented immigrants, who we hire to pick up fruit from the fields because we do not want to do it. Nor, of course, to trainees, who earn nothing. There are many millions who exchange their time for very few dollars a month, many of them adults and some parents without any other source of income.

As for the argument regarding the rich countries without minimum remuneration, in these there are generally more employment regulations than in the United States to guarantee the rights of the worker. And in particular in Germany, the first European power, it has already been proposed to set it at 8.5 euros per hour (11.6 dollars).

A country of rich and poor

Image result for america

The debate that arises in this article has its origin in the profound discontent of the American population in the face of the progressive pauperization of the middle class and socioeconomic disparity in the country, more typical of populist or authoritarian regimes. In 2012, the highest salaried 10% took 50% of the country’s income. A minimum hired employee must work three months to earn the same as a chief executive in one hour. Most of the businesses that hire minimum wage have a workforce of more than 100 workers and makes substantial profits, and some are chains with annual benefits of billionaires, such as WalMart, which strongly opposes a change in legislation and whose motto is “Save money and live better.”

Bárbara, the writer turned into a waitress at the beginning of the article, soon discovers that she has to make a double day to continue paying her rent of 500 dollars a month. He works from 8 in the morning to 10 at night, in two restaurants, and he takes some Aleve aspirins between shifts and shifts to stop muscle pain. He spends more than an hour a day on the road, which takes away the little time available to look for other job opportunities that are better paid. The decisions you make are not the smartest, but the only viable ones according to your budget. Dinner two-dollar hamburgers laden with sauce and crushed in paper, destines the 20 dollars a day of tips for gasoline and food in the supermarket, and when he gets home at night deposits the four remaining bills in a pantry drawer, for emergencies .

Common sense

<strong>Common sense</strong>

Studies on the possible salary increase are still scarce and show divergent results, as I point above. It can not be anticipated precisely what would be the effect of a rise in incomes in the country’s economy. But let’s appeal to common sense: is there someone who is reading these lines and who has not worked at all eight hours a day without being able to sit down and at the end of the month has charged a sum so low that the first week of basic needs disappears? Who has not endured some kind of unfair treatment of their superiors despite having spent years in that company for a pay that never allows him to progress, that marginalizes him gradually? Who has not had jobs already in his adult age in which he earned so little that he calculated some expenses in ridiculous amounts of cents?

In a democratic and developed country the remuneration of a full-time employee should not plunge him into poverty, much less if those employees are counted by millions, while a minority accounts for half of the national salary and a good number of entrepreneurs have margins marital extraordinary. That idea should be the starting point when debating a reform.

The university enrollment bonus will begin next year

Image result for university bonusSeville, June 25 (EFE) .- The Ministry of Economy and Knowledge has assured today that the bonus of 99% of university fees will begin to operate from the 2017-2018 academic year, as reflected in the draft public price decree of the next academic year.

This decree is currently in the process of public information until June 30, as reported in a statement from the Ministry.

As it is a far-reaching measure in the Andalusian citizenship, it has been resolved that the text of the project be submitted to the widest possible dissemination, in order that the citizens know about it and can make the observations that it deems interesting during the term of seven business days from its publication in the BOJA.

The allegations that you wish to make to the draft Decree should be addressed to the General Technical Secretariat of the Ministry of Economy and Knowledge.

The bonus will be applied both in qualifying and non-enabling master’s degrees, to those students from centers belonging to the public universities of Andalusia that do not meet the requirements to obtain the scholarship from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD), although In each type of study, certain unique conditions will apply.

Thus, in the case of the grades, those credits approved in the first enrollment in the previous year will be rewarded, so that students will have to pay the first course of each grade and the bonuses would operate from the second and subsequent courses.

The bonus will also be possible in case the student changes the grade.

Taking into account that the cost of an academic course of 60 credits in Andalusia amounts to 757 euros, the student who would have approved all these credits of his first course in first enrollment, between the June and September exams, in the following academic year could save 749.4 euros.

If the student approved with equal performance four years of a degree, this would be practically the cost of a single academic year, assuming this bonus a saving of 75 percent of the cost of the full degree.

Regarding the qualifying master’s degree (those required to practice a profession) and not enabling, the bonus will be applied taking into account the credits approved in the first enrollment in the two previous academic years, and in the degree that gave access to the corresponding master’s degree.

In this way, you will have the option to take it for practically free.

The bonus will also be applied in the case of studies carried out within the Student Mobility Programs, in the case of the Erasmus, the Seneca or others within the framework of the European Union, or made through specific agreements between universities.

Students who may come from transfers of files from other national or foreign universities may benefit from the tuition bonus from the second year in which they study at any of the centers of the Andalusian universities.

On the other hand, students with MECD enrollment scholarships who lose this status during their studies may also benefit from these bonuses implemented by the Junta de Andalucía, thus avoiding the expulsion from the university system of these students, which in other circumstances could not cover the cost of their higher education.

As for the estimated budget for the application of this measure, it amounts to some 30 million euros, which will be assumed by the Andalusian Government in addition to the amounts already allocated with which the Andalusian universities are financed each year.

In addition, this item will be incorporated into the university funding system, which is currently reviewed with these institutions. EFE

ZDF WISO on Parent Maintenance: Obligated to pay by law


Care is expensive. According to calculations by ZDF WISO, there are 1,825 euros, which need to pay patients in care level 3 for a full in-patient care from their own pocket. Because on average, a nursing home costs about 3,437 euros per month, the statutory care insurance currently pays only 1,612 euros.

Thus, more than 1,800 euros per month need to be spent by the patient in order to cover the cost of care. However, the standard pension in 2015 was only around 1,310 euros (West) and 1,215 euros (East) gross . Many people who are in need of care at the age of getting even a much lower pension. Who then pays the remaining care costs , currently asks the consumer magazine ZDF WISO.

ZDF WISO: Self-used house at the parents maintenance outside

ZDF WISO: Self-used house at the parents maintenance outside

If pension and assets are too short to cover the monthly costs of care, the difference comes first to the social welfare office. However, this is reluctant to sit on the payments and tries to recover the money on the dependent persons. “Parents in need of care are legally obliged to pay part of their home costs within their financial means,” explains ZDF WISO – the so-called Elternunterhalt. How much it will end up depends on many factors. For example, parental maintenance provides protection and also a deductible, so that a certain part of the income is secure.

Even the self-used property is protected, as current judgments show, as well as a “nest egg” in the amount of 10,000 euros. Also deducted from income are insurance, dependent children and loans. On the other hand, cash , valuable jewelery and securities are fully credited , reports ZDF WISO. In addition, parental maintenance is due even if the relationship between parent and child is shattered. Anyone who has not had contact with their mother or father for years will still receive mail from the social welfare office.

How can parent support be avoided?

How can parent support be avoided?

Computers on the Internet help to get a rough idea of how high the parental maintenance is . To completely avoid or reduce this, a private long-term care insurance makes sense. Because with her the remaining care costs can be minimized. “They should close the supply gap”, so the consumer magazine. There are various forms such as the nursing daily allowance insurance. With it insured can freely dispose of the paid out money, it is not bound for a certain purpose.

When choosing a suitable long-term care insurance ZDF WISO gives some tips. Thus, a good offer should already provide dementia in care level 0, provide sufficient benefits in all care levels and in case of care no contributions should be due. In principle, it is always advisable to compare several tariffs with each other, since the price-performance gap between the insurers is great. A look at a long-term care insurance test can also help to find current top fares.

The failure of the system of return of the clauses floor can collapse the justice

The failure of the system of return of the clauses floor can collapse the justice

The extrajudicial mechanism for resolving the conflict of The ground clauses seem doomed to failure four months after it was launched. Judges and lawyers expect an avalanche of lawsuits before the courts in which the clients will request the return of what was collected by the ground clauses after the entities are denying them the same requests. If so, the mechanism would not have worked.

“In the matter of floor clauses there is a preference for the courts because those affected distrust the result of the mechanism with the banks and rely more on the judicial resolution,” says Celso Rodríguez Padrón, magistrate and spokesperson of the Professional Association of Magistrates ( APM) . “Despite the bad image of justice, people prefer to resolve the conflict in the courts than through any other mechanism,” the judge adds.




The association of judges says that citizens rely more on justice than on banks

The association of judges says that citizens rely more on justice than on banks

The president of the Consell de l’Advocacia Catalana , Carles McCragh, also thinks that the extra-judicial resolution mechanism of the ground clauses is a failure: “We have seen that it is not the solution, because once again the entities have not done their work and that’s why there may be more demands than expected. “

Although not in all entities is equal, both judges and lawyers lament that in the conflict clauses floor some banks have answered their customers with a negative response through an equal type for all. In these cases, the client can understand that he has been denied the return of the ground clauses without studying in detail his particular case.

A pact with the entity does not imply a refund: they can change the conditions of the loan

A pact with the entity does not imply a refund: they can change the conditions of the loan

“What we see are many standardized responses from the banks,” says Marina Berga, one of the lawyers of the Col·lectiu Ronda who are involved in the land clause dispute. At the law firm – Berga explains – they are serving clients to verify that the calculation made by the bank is correct, since sometimes the proposed refund does not include the interest generated by the money overcharged.

Entities are reluctant to provide data on the volume of claims filed and much less on the result. However, some privately acknowledge that they agree with the client in about 25% of the cases. In addition, the agreement does not always imply the return of the money, but it may mean that it has been agreed, for example, to change the variable-rate mortgage for a fixed-rate mortgage. Only CaixaBank calculated at the beginning of the whole process that they would return approximately half of the amounts charged in the floor clauses. Although today there is no official data.

The lawyers see a fiasco the return mechanism of the floor clauses

The lawyers see a fiasco the return mechanism of the floor clauses

Banks complain that some law firms – especially those that advertise the most – recommend that their clients abandon the extrajudicial resolution mechanism and opt directly for the lawsuit. In the opinion of some entities, some of these law firms are generating a “call effect” that can increase demands. For McCragh, who represents the Catalan bar associations, “the lawyer is not an obstacle, but the banking entities”.

The General Council of the Judicial Power has decided to create some 54 new courts of first instance (one in each province) with novice judges to be able to attend exclusively all the demands by floor clauses . The lawyers are absolutely contrary. So much so that the General Council of Spanish Lawyers will file a contentious administrative appeal before the Supreme Court against that decision following the line of the Consell de l’Advocacia Catalana.

The mechanism “moves justice away from citizenship”

The mechanism "moves justice away from citizenship"

McCragh regrets that the measure “moves justice away from citizenship”. From now on, a citizen who does not live in the provincial capital must travel there even if he has a closer court. On the other hand, the representative of the Catalan lawyers says that the measure benefits the banks because normally their legal teams are in provincial capitals, so they will not have to travel.

The magistrates ask that the necessary means be put in place to be able to offer citizens a quality justice. Celso Rodríguez Padrón says that by quality it is understood that the judgments are reasoned and with an exhaustive analysis of each case and that the ruling is in a reasonable time.


Colau will suspend building construction licenses

Colau will suspend building construction licenses

The government of the mayor Ada Colau will decree next week a suspension of licenses for the construction of new flats and large refurbishments over 600 square meters. The starting point to apply a one-year moratorium , which could last for two years, is the Urbanism commission to be held next Monday. It will be there when the local executive presents the proposal that requires housing developers to allocate 30% of the property that they build or reform to social housing.

The initiative is proposed through two modifications of the Metropolitan General Plan (PGM). One of them will require the promoters to contribute to the expansion of the public housing park in the city and the other will convert the entire municipality of Barcelona into a pre-emption and retraction area. That is to say, the City Council will have priority in the purchase of lots, farms or flats. Both proposals, which have been drafted through a working group that involved municipal technicians, Barcelona Regional (BR) and collaborated entities such as the PAH, the Sindicat de Llogueters, the FAVB, Observatori Desc and the Assemblea de Barris per a Sustainable Tourism, has caused discomfort in the management of the promoters and agents of the real estate sector, to whom it has remained on the sidelines.

In fact, the Association of Promoters and Constructors of Catalonia (APCE) yesterday warned La Vanguardia of the negative effects that the more than foreseeable suspension of licenses could cause in the economy of the city. The promoters warned that the City can achieve the opposite effect to the desired one by stopping the activity, since it would add more pressure on prices due to the “imbalance that could cause between supply and demand”.

If in the commission of Urbanism the two modifications are approved initially – everything makes foresee that thus it will be – the City council will decree the suspension of licenses, that would not be activated until its publication in the Official Butlletí of the Província. In fact, this initial approval will mean a moratorium on licenses in the entire planning area -which reaches the municipality of Barcelona- that are incompatible with the new ordination until its final approval or until a maximum period of two years. During that time, the City Council will not grant any construction permits for the construction of housing or major renovations, as happened in July 2015 when the mayor decreed the suspension of tourist accommodation licenses.

Investment of the Generalitat

On the other hand, the Government, through the Institut Català de Finances, announced yesterday that it has opened two lines of credit totaling 250 million euros with which to finance the construction or purchase of 2,800 social rental houses. The investment will serve, in the words of the Minister of Territori, Damià Calvet, to substantially expand the public park of the Generalitat, currently made up of 17,000 flats. The vice president of the Government, Pere Aragonés, explained that the first line of loans is endowed with 110 million euros and seeks to facilitate that municipalities, non-profit entities, third sector and social promoters acquire 1,800 homes from foreclosures and that are in the hands of the bank. These residences will serve families that are in a situation of social emergency. The other of the credit lines, endowed with 140 million, will be used for the construction of 1,000 social rental housing by private and public developers. These flats should be built in one of the 152 municipalities with an accredited demand and will have a maximum rent of 450 euros per month.

Apart from these investments, Calvet said that the Government intends to increase the duration of the rental contracts of the current three “to a minimum of five years”, a measure that would be achieved through “own legislation”. He warned, however, that to make this legal change “a conflict of competence with the State will occur”. “We have to finish studying if what we do is to initiate public consultations to begin the presentation and approval of a law or if we go through more urgent ways,” he said.

 dialogue with the private

&nbsp;dialogue with the private

The mayor of the Republicans for Barcelona, ​​Alfred Bosch, called yesterday for “a great city pact” between the administration, the private sector and the third sector to deal with the problems that the city suffers with respect to housing. “Public housing is 2%: you have to work with the private sector,” defended the municipal leader of ERC in a conference on housing that the training held yesterday at Nau Bostik. “In this legislature we have seen how the price of rents in Barcelona has multiplied. Is it the fault of the current government? No. Is it your responsibility? Yes, “said Bosch, accusing the Colau executive of devoting more to blaming others than looking for solutions. “We have to necessarily have the private sector,” said Bosch. “And you have to look for viable formulas that are not impositions,” he concluded.


Fitch maintains the Valencian debt with low approval and stable outlook

The risk rating agency Fitch has maintained

Today the rating of the long-term debt of the Comunitat Valenciana in “BBB-“, a pass approved at only one step of the “junk bond” , and has considered that it presents a “stable perspective”.

The agency has also assessed the short-term debt with a rating of “F3”, as made public this afternoon in a statement.

From Fitch have explained that they maintain the same note of approved low for the other Spanish autonomous communities, and have added that they will monitor the debate on the support of the state to the liquidity of the autonomies.

The rating of the debt in the Valencian Community is based, have detailed from the agency, in the expectations on the support of the state to the communities, and takes into account factors that contribute to improve the liquidity of the regions and reduce the probability that There is debt.

These parameters include the Budget Stability Law, among others, as well as access to state support mechanisms such as the Autonomous Liquidity Fund (FLA) and the Financial Facility Fund (FFF).

In Fitch’s opinion, the access of the Community to the FLA will continue to be insured in 2016 and 2017 for the Valencia Region.

In addition, from the rating agency have recalled that 77% of the debt with which the Community closed the year 2015 was funded through state aid mechanisms, which is a sign of the “strong support” of the central Government.

In this sense, they have considered that the Government ratified its financial support on December 23, 2014, when it “introduced more measures” to lighten the debt of the autonomous communities, including zero interest loans in 2015, bringing the interests of the debt decreased, a forecast that Fitch maintains for 2016.

Regarding the FLA

Regarding the FLA

they recalled that in the first two quarters of 2016, aid from this fund was delayed due to “political uncertainty in the central government”, although disbursements in the third and fourth quarters were “punctual”.

In addition, Fitch indicates that without the help of the central government pressure on the debt service would have been higher, since the use of funds from the State has facilitated part of the payments.

From the agency have stressed that the Valencia Region has a “weaker economic profile” than the whole of Spain, and have predicted that this weakness will be “difficult to reverse in the short and medium term, unless there is a significant change in the financing system. “

“The Comunitat Valenciana, in 2014, received 14% less financing per capita than the average of the other 14 Spanish regions under the common system, and relies on a reform of the financing system to cover this gap,” they said, if Well have qualified that the resources contributed to the Community have grown and will continue to do so in 2017.

The Fitch Agency recalls that in May 2015 a new coalition Government of the PSOE and Compromís was elected, with the support of Podemos, which has resulted in a political fragmentation with a new orientation in which social care is given priority and public health

As a forecast, the rating agency has indicated that the largest represent a large percentage of the Valencian population, “which could add pressure to Social Security and social services.”